## Saturday, June 20, 2015

### Dimensionality Reduction - K-Means Clustering and PCA - Machine Learning

My solutions to week 8 exercises :

Part 1 : Find Closest Centroids

```function idx = findClosestCentroids(X, centroids)
%FINDCLOSESTCENTROIDS computes the centroid memberships for every example
%   idx = FINDCLOSESTCENTROIDS (X, centroids) returns the closest centroids
%   in idx for a dataset X where each row is a single example. idx = m x 1
%   vector of centroid assignments (i.e. each entry in range [1..K])
%

% Set K
K = size(centroids, 1);

% You need to return the following variables correctly.
idx = zeros(size(X,1), 1);

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Go over every example, find its closest centroid, and store
%               the index inside idx at the appropriate location.
%               Concretely, idx(i) should contain the index of the centroid
%               closest to example i. Hence, it should be a value in the
%               range 1..K
%
% Note: You can use a for-loop over the examples to compute this.
%
for i=1:size(X,1)
minDistance = 100000000000;
minIndex = -1;
for j=1:K
vec = ones(size(centroids, 1)) * X(i);

thisDistance = sum((X(i,:)-centroids(j, :)).^2);
if thisDistance<minDistance minDistance = thisDistance; minIndex = j; end
end
idx(i) = minIndex;
end

% =============================================================

end```

Part 2 : Compute Centroid Means

```function centroids = computeCentroids(X, idx, K)
%COMPUTECENTROIDS returs the new centroids by computing the means of the
%data points assigned to each centroid.
%   centroids = COMPUTECENTROIDS(X, idx, K) returns the new centroids by
%   computing the means of the data points assigned to each centroid. It is
%   given a dataset X where each row is a single data point, a vector
%   idx of centroid assignments (i.e. each entry in range [1..K]) for each
%   example, and K, the number of centroids. You should return a matrix
%   centroids, where each row of centroids is the mean of the data points
%   assigned to it.
%

% Useful variables
[m n] = size(X);

% You need to return the following variables correctly.
centroids = zeros(K, n);

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Go over every centroid and compute mean of all points that
%               belong to it. Concretely, the row vector centroids(i, :)
%               should contain the mean of the data points assigned to
%               centroid i.
%
% Note: You can use a for-loop over the centroids to compute this.
%

for i = 1:K
count=0;
for j=1:m
if idx(j)==i
count = count+1;
end
end
end

% =============================================================

end```

Part 3 : PCA

```function [U, S] = pca(X)
%PCA Run principal component analysis on the dataset X
%   [U, S, X] = pca(X) computes eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of X
%   Returns the eigenvectors U, the eigenvalues (on diagonal) in S
%

% Useful values
[m, n] = size(X);

% You need to return the following variables correctly.
U = zeros(n);
S = zeros(n);

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: You should first compute the covariance matrix. Then, you
%               should use the "svd" function to compute the eigenvectors
%               and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix.
%
% Note: When computing the covariance matrix, remember to divide by m (the
%       number of examples).
%

covarianceMatrixSigma = (X'*X)/m;
[U S V] = svd(covarianceMatrixSigma);

% =========================================================================

end```

Part 4 : Project Data

```function Z = projectData(X, U, K)
%PROJECTDATA Computes the reduced data representation when projecting only
%on to the top k eigenvectors
%   Z = projectData(X, U, K) computes the projection of
%   the normalized inputs X into the reduced dimensional space spanned by
%   the first K columns of U. It returns the projected examples in Z.
%

% You need to return the following variables correctly.
Z = zeros(size(X, 1), K);

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the projection of the data using only the top K
%               eigenvectors in U (first K columns).
%               For the i-th example X(i,:), the projection on to the k-th
%               eigenvector is given as follows:
%                    x = X(i, :)';
%                    projection_k = x' * U(:, k);
%

Ureduced = U(:, 1:K);
Z = X*Ureduced;

% =============================================================

end```

Part 5 : Recover Data

```function X_rec = recoverData(Z, U, K)
%RECOVERDATA Recovers an approximation of the original data when using the
%projected data
%   X_rec = RECOVERDATA(Z, U, K) recovers an approximation the
%   original data that has been reduced to K dimensions. It returns the
%   approximate reconstruction in X_rec.
%

% You need to return the following variables correctly.
X_rec = zeros(size(Z, 1), size(U, 1));
% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the approximation of the data by projecting back
%               onto the original space using the top K eigenvectors in U.
%
%               For the i-th example Z(i,:), the (approximate)
%               recovered data for dimension j is given as follows:
%                    v = Z(i, :)';
%                    recovered_j = v' * U(j, 1:K)';
%
%               Notice that U(j, 1:K) is a row vector.
%

U_reducedT = U(:, 1:K)';
X_rec = Z*U_reducedT;
% =============================================================

end```